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Alternative Treatments

Please take any theories intentions, questions or concerns to your doctor, metabolic consultant or neurologist before trying. I am an NKH Mum trying to figure out how best to help my boy, but I’m not a metabolic doctor, a biochemist or a neurologist. If you have any questions about any theory shared here – please take them to your doctors.

QRI – Quantum Reflex Integration with Low Level Light Laser Therapy


Here’s how it works. There are a few premises, so let’s start with those.

The first premise is that <strong>cells in our body can take up energy from light</strong>. It’s called photobiomodulation. The Science, as I understand it:

  • Each cell in our body has a little power factory, called mitochondria. It creates ATP, which is what powers every function in every cell in our body.
  • Cytochrome C Oxidase (CCO) is a step in the mitochondrial electron transport chain – the part that helps make ATP. It transfers one electron (from each of the four cytochrome c molecules), to a single oxygen molecule, producing two molecules of water.
  • At the same time, four protons are moved across the mitochondrial membrane, producing a proton gradient that the ATP synthase enzyme needs to synthesise ATP.
  • CCO has two heme centres and two copper centres. Each of these metal centres can exist in an oxidized or a reduced state, and these have different absorption spectra, meaning CCO can absorb light well into the NIR region (up to 950 nm)
  • Which is to say wavelengths in the red (600–700 nm) and near-infrared (NIR, 770–1200 nm) spectral regions, can be absorbed by the CCO centres, which causes an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) above normal baseline levels (increasing the amount of ATP made) and leads to a brief and rather modest increase in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) – which is a number of reactive molecules and free radicals derived from molecular oxygen. It’s used in a cell signalling and cell cycling.

In a nutshell – given the right wavelengths of light, the mitochondria of a cell can absorb the photons from the laser, which stimulates the cell – increasing the ATP made and improving the signals between cells

The second premise is about reflexes. <strong>We all have reflexes, and they can be retained, preventing development</strong>.We all have a number of reflexes designed to help our bodies move through developmental phases. Reflex’s are held in what is called the Reflex Arc – it’s a neural pathway that controls a reflex. Most sensory neurons do not pass directly through the brain, but instead through the spinal cord.This allows for faster reflex actions to occur by activating spinal motor neurons without the delay of routing signals through the brain.
When babies grow, the reflex triggers a certain number of movements automatically. These movements pave a set of neural pathways that, eventually, will allow the reflex to be integrated. Once a reflex is integrated, it’s no longer needed and the body will no longer use the reflex.

If there is an issue in the brain, or in the central nervous system (like, say because you have Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia) – these reflexes may not be integrated correctly or at all. They might be retained. If a reflex is retained, the child will not easily be able to progress. If they do progress, they’ll need to compensate for the retained reflex.

The third premise is for <strong>reflexes that aren’t integrated can be integrated</strong>. Or rather, helped along. If reflexes are typically integrated with repeated movement, repeated, rhythmic movement (or, say, cell stimulation in particular points) may be able to help integrated reflexes by forming neuropathways. Even in brains with neural damage, on the idea that our brains have a certain amount of neuroplasticity, and if possible, they will find a way.This is where things get a bit more… flexible.


  • LED study on that showed significant improvements in executive function and verbal memory of Chronic/Traumatic brain injury patients after LED/near infra-red light therapy. (Source)
  • LLLT decreased the muscle spasticity of children with spastic Cerebral Palsy (Source)
  • LLLT/photobiomodulation – cells exposed to low-levels of red and near-IR light from lasers or LEDs either stimulate or (less likely) inhibit cellular function, leading to reduction of cell and tissue death, improved wound healing, increasing repair of damage to soft tissue, nerves, bone, and cartilage, and relief for both acute and chronic pain and inflammation.Technically not a study, but I got half way through the references before I decided it was probably the most succinct version about LLLT. (Source)
  • Applying near-infrared light to the head of animals that have suffered traumatic brain injuries produces improvement in neurological functioning, reduces neuroinflammation, and stimulates the formation of new neurons (Source)
  • The rats subjected to 500 mW of laser irradiation had a significant decrease in glutamate, aspartate, and taurine in the cortex, and a significant decrease in hippocampal GABA (Source).  Side note: this one’s helpful, because if there is a decrease in glutamate, the NMDA receptors which glycine binds to are less likely to fire.

Neurofeedback Therapy

Neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback that measures brain waves via an EEG to produce a signal (like a video, music or vibration) that can be used to reward positive brain activity. Which is to say, reward and encourage more normal brain activity, rather than abnormal brain activity that may cause seizures.


Meta-Analysis of EEG Biofeedback in Treating Epilepsy

This study analyzed every EEG biofeedback study indexed in three medical databases over a 35 year period, looking at epilepsy that provided seizure frequency change in response to neurofeedback. Of 63 studies, 10 provided enough information to be included in the meta-analysis. Nine of 10 studies reinforced sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) while 1 study trained slow cortical potentials (SCP). All studies reported an overall mean decreased seizure incidence following treatment and 74% patients reported fewer weekly seizures in response to EEG biofeedback.

Biofeedback in the Treatment of Epilepsy

Behavioral management of epileptic seizures following EEG biofeedback training of the sensorimotor rhythm

Glutathione/NAC and the relationship between Glutamate and Glycine


Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant and capable of preventing damage to important cellular components (typically caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals, peroxides, lipid peroxides, and heavy metals).

It is a tripeptide with a gamma peptide linkage between the carboxyl group of the glutamate side chain and the amine group of cysteine, and the carboxyl group of cysteine is attached by normal peptide linkage to a glycine.

The most important chemical in our body for detoxing and liver function. To make glutathione you need glycine, glutamine and cysteine. Because of the nature of NKH, it’s reasonable to assume NKH kids are lacking in glutathione.

There are two results with low glutathione:

1. Poor detoxing, low immunity, food intolerances. lowered liver function etc
2. With low glutathione comes high glutamate

Glutamate (also known as glutamic acid) is a neurotransmitter: a chemical that nerve cells use to send signals to other cells. It is by a wide margin the most abundant neurotransmitter in our nervous system and is used by every major excitatory function in the brain, accounting in total for well over 90% of the synaptic connections. It also serves as the primary neurotransmitter for some localized brain regions, such as cerebellum granule cells.

Biochemical receptors for glutamate fall into three major classes, known as AMPA receptors, NMDA receptors, and metabotropic glutamate receptors.
Many synapses use multiple types of glutamate receptors. AMPA receptors are ionotropic receptors specialized for fast excitation: in many synapses they produce excitatory electrical responses in their targets a fraction of a millisecond after being stimulated. NMDA receptors are also ionotropic, but they differ from AMPA receptors in being permeable, when activated, to calcium. Their properties make them particularly important for learning and memory. Metabotropic receptors act through second messenger systems to create slow, sustained effects on their targets.

It’s important to note at this point, NMDA receptors have two bindings sites – glutamate and glycine. It is these receptors which over fire when glycine is high, causing the neurone to overfire and ultimately die.

Because of its role in synaptic plasticity, glutamate is involved in cognitive functions such as learning and memory in the brain. The form of plasticity known as long-term potentiation takes place at glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus, neocortex, and other parts of the brain. Glutamate works not only as a point-to-point transmitter, but also through spill-over synaptic crosstalk between synapses in which summation of glutamate released from a neighboring synapse creates extrasynaptic signaling/volume transmission. In addition, glutamate plays important roles in the regulation of growth cones and synaptogenesis during brain development.

You can lower glutamate by ensuring your diet is 100% gluten free, and 100% msg free. MSG is in anything labelled ‘flavour, natural flavour, artificial flavour, yeast extract, hydolyzed everything, citric acid, vitamin enriched). It’s likely that if it is premade or processed, it will contain MSG. Additionally, it’s been suggested all supplements and medications are compounded. Flavour free, colour free, with no preservatives.

To raise glutathione its a bit tricky as glutathione won’t make it past the digestive system. In hospital glutathione is given intravenously, which isn’t practical in a home setting .

Instead, the amino acid-derived compound N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) can replenish the levels of the glutathione, ideally supplemented with Vitamin C (side note: beware of taking Vit C with Sodium Benzoate, as SB can bind to Vit C and create benzene – a known carcinogenic).

Dose wise:  1g is suggested for adults of NAC. Perhaps start small, with 500mg for children, split over 3 doses across the day. Additionally, you can also boost with magnesium, b6, zinc and folinic acid (also known as calcium folinate).

It could take anywhere between 4 to 12 weeks to see a change as NAC very slowly raises glutathione which will very slowly lower glutamate.


Please take any theories intentions, questions or concerns to your doctor, metabolic consultant or neurologist before trying. I am an NKH Mum trying to figure out how best to help my boy, but I’m not a metabolic doctor, a biochemist or a neurologist. If you have any questions about any theory shared here – please take them to your doctors.